Made from a unique formula of essential oils, this DEET & CHEMICAL FREE, non-toxic repellent is designed to provide immediate protection from biting insects whilst relieving any skin itching and swelling associated with already affected areas. It is a laboratory proven effective antidote against mosquitoes that can be used against sandflies, march flies and other biting insects. These carry harmful viruses, cause skin irritations and disease like Ross River, Dengue Fever, Barmah Forest and Malaria. It is non-greasy, convenient to use and a vitamin E enriched, light moisturizing lotion.
Its pleasant aromatherapy scent creates an effective barrier against landing insects, whilst the fine molecules of the essential oils are absorbed into the blood stream. These mosquito repellents work immediately on assisting any allergic reaction the bites, stimulating tissue repair and acting as protection from infection. Prolonged use of these products would build up the body’s own viral immunity against those potentially dangerous mosquito borne diseases.
Clinical trials at the Chemskills laboratory in NSW have proven The Locals “Sandfly and Mozzie Stuff” is a natural mosquito repellent and it is very effective against Mosquitoes. It is our customers who have made our products so popular. If you are not happy with the Sandfly Repellent and Mozzie Stuff we will refund your purchase.
Sandflies are small robust insects with piercing and sucking mouthparts that belong to the family of flies Ceratopogonidae. Only a few groups within this family are known to suck blood and their distribution is almost worldwide. These small flies are renowned for their nuisance biting and are associated with habitats such as coastal lagoons, estuaries, mangrove swamps and tidal flats. In Australia these flies are commonly known as sandflies but are correctly referred to as biting sandflies.
The biting activity of adult sandflies is mainly limited to the periods of dawn and dusk; they will remain inactive through very windy weather, finding shelter amongst vegetation. Biting sandflies will usually disperse only short distances from their breeding sites. Only female sandflies feed on blood, but both the females and males will feed on vegetable fluids and nectar. Adult sandflies are 1.5-4.0 mm long with stout short legs, and at rest fold their wings, which are often mottled, over the abdomen. Their mouthparts are short and projected down. Female sandflies may attack humans in large numbers, biting on any areas of exposed skin, and often on the face, scalp and hands. Some species will blood feed on a wide range of animal hosts. The egg batches contain between 30-100 eggs, and are laid on selected substrates such as mud, decaying leaf litter, damp soil or other vegetative materials, dependent on the species. The small eel-like larvae hatch in a few days; their larval habitat must contain a proportion of organic material with a high moisture content to provide optimum conditions for the larval stage to thrive and pupate. The whole life cycle takes 3-10 weeks, dependent on species and environmental conditions, particularly temperature.
Biting sandflies are responsible for acute discomfort, irritation and severe local reactions. Itching may commence immediately after the bite, but often not for some hours later, and most individuals are unaware of being bitten at the time. Biting sandflies have their greatest impact on people arriving to an area or tourists. Local residents seem to build up some immunity to the biting. In some sensitive people, sandflies can produce persistent reactions that blister and weep serum from the site of each bite and these reactions may last for several days to weeks. Biting sandflies are not known to transmit any disease-causing pathogens to humans in Australia.
There are no known efficient methods of controlling biting sandflies, but personal protection will help in reducing exposure to their bites. People should avoid going out at dawn and dusk to localities which are visited by biting sandflies. Do wear clothing which covers as much body parts as possible and apply a relevant repellent to the skin which is exposed. Such preventive measures would help in combating biting flies.
Mosquitoes are blood dependant insects which are responsible for the spread of many diseases among human as well as the animal populations of the world. There are more than three hundred species of mosquitoes within Australia though only a small portion is of main concern. Several harmful diseases are transmitted throughout Australia by these insects including Dengue fever, Australian encephalitis, Ross River,Barmah Forest and malaria. Mosquitoes have the ability to cause major disruptions, through their constant biting, to recreational, occupational and social activities.
Mosquitoes are tiny fragile insects with six delicate legs and two wings covered inscales. They belong to Culicidae family of flies. The insect’s head has a projecting proboscis that protects and conceals the piercing mouth parts. Their life cycle is complex; their immature stage is aquatic and their adult stage on the other hand is terrestrial. Only during the laying of eggs the female mosquitoes return back to the water habitats.
The mosquito species differ in their flight range, breeding habits, biting behavior and host preferences. These pests disperse in less than two kilometers; while few only move few meters from the actual breeding ground. Some species can fly 5 to 10 kilometers, while another group of mosquitoes go away up to 50 kilometers downwind from their habitats.
A female mosquito would live approximately two to three weeks on an average. However lifespan is short for the male mosquito. Both adult female and male would feed on plant fluids and nectar. However the female seeks a blood meal. Several species require this blood as a source of protein for egg development. Female mosquitoes are engrossed to a potential host through a combination of various stimuli which originate from the host. The stimuli include body odours, carbon dioxide, heat or air movement. After locating an appropriate host, female would probe the skin for a blood capillary and thereafter inject a small amount of saliva that contains chemicals which thwarts the host's blood from clotting. Normally this is the pathway for budding pathogens to enter a host. The female will find a resting place to digest her meal and develop eggs before flying off to deposit them in a suitable aquatic habitat. Young larvae on hatching feed constantly and grow through four various moults. The development of larva depends on climatic condition and food availability. It takes at least one to two weeks to develop. The final larval instar has the resemblance of an active comma-shaped pupa from which emerges the adult mosquito about 2 days later to feed, mate and enlarge eggs for future generation.
Diseases transmitted by mosquitoes in Australia include Dengue fever, Australian encephalitis, Ross River virus disease and Barmah Forerst virus disease. Dengue is the most important viral disease transmitted by mosquitoes afflicting humans in a world context. Clinical symptoms range from mild fevers, to severe and potentially life threatening hemorrhagic diseases. In Australia, Dengue fever is restricted to Queensland where the major vector Aedes aegypti occurs. "Australian encephalitis" (AE), or "Murray Valley encephalitis" are synonyms for a clinical syndrome caused by infection with Murray Valley encephalitis virus or Kunjin virus. Symptoms are variable, from mild to severe with permanent impaired neurological functions, to sometimes fatal. Cases of AE occur sporadically in northern Australia and especially in the northwest of WA, but there have been no cases of MVE recorded in south eastern Australia since 1974. Ross River (RR) and Barmah Forest (BF) disease have been collectively known as "Epidemic Polyarthritis", however the two diseases have a slightly different clinical picture. A wide variety of symptoms may occur from rashes with fevers, to arthritis that can last from months to years with RR virus infection. RR disease is the most commonly reported mosquito transmitted disease to humans (over 6,500 cases in 1997) and occurs in all states of Australia. There are occasional local epidemics with hundreds to thousands of infections, with many going unreported. BF disease occurs in most states of Australia, although the annual number of cases are around 1/10th that of RR disease. A series of outbreaks during the early 1990's has highlighted the increasing importance of BF disease. Malaria in Australia has been endemic, but was declared eradicated from the country in 1981. However, approximately 700-800 cases are imported annually from travelers.
Sensitivity to mosquito bites varies with individuals, most people have only a mild reaction but others can have severe symptoms from the saliva of mosquitoes. Typical symptoms include swelling, redness and irritation at the puncture site. If the bites are scratched or traumatized, they may become infected with bacteria and a secondary infection can be initiated, especially on the lower limbs. The diagnosis of mosquito-borne diseases including Dengue, Australian encephalitis, and Ross River and Barmah Forest viruses can only be confirmed with appropriate blood tests.
Simple measures can be taken by individuals to limit their contact with mosquitoes. Areas that are known to be infested with large numbers of mosquitoes should be avoided. Activities that are scheduled for outdoors, especially around dusk should be limited, as the biting activity of many mosquitoes will peak during this period. Long sleeves and long pants should be worn when visiting areas that are infested with mosquitoes. Windows and doors should be screened. A small gauge mesh to exclude mosquitoes from these potential breeding sites should be used on water tanks. Empty all containers throughout the garden that hold water such as pot plant saucers, tyres, roof guttering and tins to prevent breeding. Bed nets are an effective barrier against biting insects at home or camping, and can now treated safely with an insecticide. Insecticidal sprays, coils and electric mats can be used around the house which can help in keeping mosquitoes at bay.
Information and identification of biting sandflies and mosquitoes, and all other medically important insects, is provided through the Medical Entomology Department at ICPMR, Westmead Hospital.